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 GNU tar: an archiver tool
 *************************
 
 This manual is for GNU `tar' (version 1.23, 12 July 2016), which
 creates and extracts files from archives.
 
    Copyright (C) 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003,
 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Free Software
 Foundation, Inc.
 
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
      document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
      Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
      Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts
      being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
      below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
      "GNU Free Documentation License".
 
      (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy
      and modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports
      it in developing GNU and promoting software freedom."
 
    The first part of this master menu lists the major nodes in this Info
 document.  The rest of the menu lists all the lower level nodes.
 

Menu

 
* Introduction
* Tutorial
* tar invocation
* operations
* Backups
* Choosing
* Date input formats
* Formats
* Media
 
 Appendices
 
* Changes
* Configuring Help Summary
* Fixing Snapshot Files
* Tar Internals
* Genfile
* Free Software Needs Free Documentation
* Copying This Manual
* Index of Command Line Options
* Index
 
  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
 
 Introduction
 
* Book Contents               What this Book Contains
* Definitions                 Some Definitions
* What tar Does               What `tar' Does
* Naming tar Archives         How `tar' Archives are Named
* Authors                     GNU `tar' Authors
* Reports                     Reporting bugs or suggestions
 
 Tutorial Introduction to `tar'
 
* assumptions
* stylistic conventions
* basic tar options           Basic `tar' Operations and Options
* frequent operations
* Two Frequent Options
* create                      How to Create Archives
* list                        How to List Archives
* extract                     How to Extract Members from an Archive
* going further
 
 Two Frequently Used Options
 
* file tutorial
* verbose tutorial
* help tutorial
 
 How to Create Archives
 
* prepare for examples
* Creating the archive
* create verbose
* short create
* create dir
 
 How to List Archives
 
* list dir
 
 How to Extract Members from an Archive
 
* extracting archives
* extracting files
* extract dir
* extracting untrusted archives
* failing commands
 
 Invoking GNU `tar'
 
* Synopsis
* using tar options
* Styles
* All Options
* help
* defaults
* verbose
* checkpoints
* warnings
* interactive
 
 The Three Option Styles
 
* Long Options                Long Option Style
* Short Options               Short Option Style
* Old Options                 Old Option Style
* Mixing                      Mixing Option Styles
 
 All `tar' Options
 
* Operation Summary
* Option Summary
* Short Option Summary
 
 GNU `tar' Operations
 
* Basic tar
* Advanced tar
* create options
* extract options
* backup
* Applications
* looking ahead
 
 Advanced GNU `tar' Operations
 
* Operations
* append
* update
* concatenate
* delete
* compare
 
 How to Add Files to Existing Archives: `--append'
 
* appending files             Appending Files to an Archive
* multiple
 
 Updating an Archive
 
* how to update
 
 Options Used by `--create'
 
* override                  Overriding File Metadata.
* Ignore Failed Read
 
 Options Used by `--extract'
 
* Reading                     Options to Help Read Archives
* Writing                     Changing How `tar' Writes Files
* Scarce                      Coping with Scarce Resources
 
 Options to Help Read Archives
 
* read full records
* Ignore Zeros
 
 Changing How `tar' Writes Files
 
* Dealing with Old Files
* Overwrite Old Files
* Keep Old Files
* Keep Newer Files
* Unlink First
* Recursive Unlink
* Data Modification Times
* Setting Access Permissions
* Directory Modification Times and Permissions
* Writing to Standard Output
* Writing to an External Program
* remove files
 
 Coping with Scarce Resources
 
* Starting File
* Same Order
 
 Performing Backups and Restoring Files
 
* Full Dumps                  Using `tar' to Perform Full Dumps
* Incremental Dumps           Using `tar' to Perform Incremental Dumps
* Backup Levels               Levels of Backups
* Backup Parameters           Setting Parameters for Backups and Restoration
* Scripted Backups            Using the Backup Scripts
* Scripted Restoration        Using the Restore Script
 
 Setting Parameters for Backups and Restoration
 
* General-Purpose Variables
* Magnetic Tape Control
* User Hooks
* backup-specs example        An Example Text of `Backup-specs'
 
 Choosing Files and Names for `tar'
 
* file                        Choosing the Archive's Name
* Selecting Archive Members
* files                       Reading Names from a File
* exclude                     Excluding Some Files
* wildcards                   Wildcards Patterns and Matching
* quoting styles              Ways of Quoting Special Characters in Names
* transform                   Modifying File and Member Names
* after                       Operating Only on New Files
* recurse                     Descending into Directories
* one                         Crossing File System Boundaries
 
 Reading Names from a File
 
* nul
 
 Excluding Some Files
 
* problems with exclude
 
 Wildcards Patterns and Matching
 
* controlling pattern-matching
 
 Crossing File System Boundaries
 
* directory                   Changing Directory
* absolute                    Absolute File Names
 
 Date input formats
 
* General date syntax            Common rules.
* Calendar date items            19 Dec 1994.
* Time of day items              9:20pm.
* Time zone items                EST, PDT, GMT.
* Day of week items              Monday and others.
* Relative items in date strings next tuesday, 2 years ago.
* Pure numbers in date strings   19931219, 1440.
* Seconds since the Epoch        @1078100502.
* Specifying time zone rules     TZ="America/New_York", TZ="UTC0".
* Authors of get_date            Bellovin, Eggert, Salz, Berets, et al.
 
 Controlling the Archive Format
 
* Compression                 Using Less Space through Compression
* Attributes                  Handling File Attributes
* Portability                 Making `tar' Archives More Portable
* cpio                        Comparison of `tar' and `cpio'
 
 Using Less Space through Compression
 
* gzip                        Creating and Reading Compressed Archives
* sparse                      Archiving Sparse Files
 
 Making `tar' Archives More Portable
 
* Portable Names              Portable Names
* dereference                 Symbolic Links
* hard links                  Hard Links
* old                         Old V7 Archives
* ustar                       Ustar Archives
* gnu                         GNU and old GNU format archives.
* posix                       POSIX archives
* Checksumming                Checksumming Problems
* Large or Negative Values    Large files, negative time stamps, etc.
* Other Tars                  How to Extract GNU-Specific Data Using
                                 Other `tar' Implementations
 
 GNU `tar' and POSIX `tar'
 
* PAX keywords Controlling Extended Header Keywords.
 
 How to Extract GNU-Specific Data Using Other `tar' Implementations
 
* Split Recovery       Members Split Between Volumes
* Sparse Recovery      Sparse Members
 
 Tapes and Other Archive Media
 
* Device                      Device selection and switching
* Remote Tape Server
* Common Problems and Solutions
* Blocking                    Blocking
* Many                        Many archives on one tape
* Using Multiple Tapes        Using Multiple Tapes
* label                       Including a Label in the Archive
* verify
* Write Protection
 
 Blocking
 
* Format Variations           Format Variations
* Blocking Factor             The Blocking Factor of an Archive
 
 Many Archives on One Tape
 
* Tape Positioning            Tape Positions and Tape Marks
* mt                          The `mt' Utility
 
 Using Multiple Tapes
 
* Multi-Volume Archives       Archives Longer than One Tape or Disk
* Tape Files                  Tape Files
* Tarcat                      Concatenate Volumes into a Single Archive
 
 
 Tar Internals
 
* Standard           Basic Tar Format
* Extensions         GNU Extensions to the Archive Format
* Sparse Formats     Storing Sparse Files
* Snapshot Files
* Dumpdir
 
 Storing Sparse Files
 
* Old GNU Format
* PAX 0                PAX Format, Versions 0.0 and 0.1
* PAX 1                PAX Format, Version 1.0
 
 Genfile
 
* Generate Mode     File Generation Mode.
* Status Mode       File Status Mode.
* Exec Mode         Synchronous Execution mode.
 
 Copying This Manual
 
* GNU Free Documentation License  License for copying this manual
 
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