This file documents the GNU `make' utility, which determines
automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled,
and issues the commands to recompile them.
This is Edition 0.71, last updated 19 July 2010, of `The GNU Make
Manual', for GNU `make' version 3.82.
Copyright (C) 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996,
1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009,
2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts
being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
"GNU Free Documentation License."
(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
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* Overview Overview of `make'.
* Introduction An introduction to `make'.
* Makefiles Makefiles tell `make' what to do.
* Rules Rules describe when a file must be remade.
* Recipes Recipes say how to remake a file.
* Using Variables You can use variables to avoid repetition.
* Conditionals Use or ignore parts of the makefile based
on the values of variables.
* Functions Many powerful ways to manipulate text.
* Invoking make Running. How to invoke `make' on the command line.
* Implicit Rules Use implicit rules to treat many files alike,
based on their file names.
* Archives How `make' can update library archives.
* Features Features GNU `make' has over other `make's.
* Missing What GNU `make' lacks from other `make's.
* Makefile Conventions Conventions for writing makefiles for
* Quick Reference A quick reference for experienced users.
* Error Messages A list of common errors generated by `make'.
* Complex Makefile A real example of a straightforward,
but nontrivial, makefile.
* GNU Free Documentation License License for copying this manual
* Concept Index Index of Concepts
* Name Index Index of Functions, Variables, & Directives
--- The Detailed Node Listing ---
Overview of `make'
* Preparing Preparing and running make
* Reading On reading this text
* Bugs Problems and bugs
An Introduction to Makefiles
* Rule Introduction What a rule looks like.
* Simple Makefile A simple makefile
* How Make Works How `make' processes this makefile
* Variables Simplify Variables make makefiles simpler
* make Deduces Letting `make' deduce the recipe
* Combine By Prerequisite Another style of makefile
* Cleanup Rules for cleaning the directory
* Makefile Contents What makefiles contain.
* Makefile Names How to name your makefile.
* Include How one makefile can use another makefile.
* MAKEFILES Variable The environment can specify extra makefiles.
* Remaking Makefiles How makefiles get remade.
* Overriding Makefiles How to override part of one makefile
with another makefile.
* Reading Makefiles How makefiles are parsed.
* Secondary Expansion How and when secondary expansion is performed.
* Rule Example An example explained.
* Rule Syntax General syntax explained.
* Prerequisite Types There are two types of prerequisites.
* Wildcards Using wildcard characters such as `*'.
* Directory Search Searching other directories for source files.
* Phony Targets Using a target that is not a real file's name.
* Force Targets You can use a target without a recipe
or prerequisites to mark other targets
* Empty Targets When only the date matters and the
files are empty.
* Special Targets Targets with special built-in meanings.
* Multiple Targets When to make use of several targets in a rule.
* Multiple Rules How to use several rules with the same target.
* Static Pattern Static pattern rules apply to multiple targets
and can vary the prerequisites according to
the target name.
* Double-Colon How to use a special kind of rule to allow
several independent rules for one target.
* Automatic Prerequisites How to automatically generate rules giving
prerequisites from source files themselves.
Using Wildcard Characters in File Names
* Wildcard Examples Several examples
* Wildcard Pitfall Problems to avoid.
* Wildcard Function How to cause wildcard expansion where
it does not normally take place.
Searching Directories for Prerequisites
* General Search Specifying a search path that applies
to every prerequisite.
* Selective Search Specifying a search path
for a specified class of names.
* Search Algorithm When and how search paths are applied.
* Recipes/Search How to write recipes that work together
with search paths.
* Implicit/Search How search paths affect implicit rules.
* Libraries/Search Directory search for link libraries.
Static Pattern Rules
* Static Usage The syntax of static pattern rules.
* Static versus Implicit When are they better than implicit rules?
Writing Recipes in Rules
* Recipe Syntax Recipe syntax features and pitfalls.
* Echoing How to control when recipes are echoed.
* Execution How recipes are executed.
* Parallel How recipes can be executed in parallel.
* Errors What happens after a recipe execution error.
* Interrupts What happens when a recipe is interrupted.
* Recursion Invoking `make' from makefiles.
* Canned Recipes Defining canned recipes.
* Empty Recipes Defining useful, do-nothing recipes.
* Splitting Lines Breaking long recipe lines for readability.
* Variables in Recipes Using `make' variables in recipes.
* Choosing the Shell How `make' chooses the shell used
to run recipes.
Recursive Use of `make'
* MAKE Variable The special effects of using `$(MAKE)'.
* Variables/Recursion How to communicate variables to a sub-`make'.
* Options/Recursion How to communicate options to a sub-`make'.
* -w Option How the `-w' or `--print-directory' option
helps debug use of recursive `make' commands.
How to Use Variables
* Reference How to use the value of a variable.
* Flavors Variables come in two flavors.
* Advanced Advanced features for referencing a variable.
* Values All the ways variables get their values.
* Setting How to set a variable in the makefile.
* Appending How to append more text to the old value
of a variable.
* Override Directive How to set a variable in the makefile even if
the user has set it with a command argument.
* Multi-Line An alternate way to set a variable
to a multi-line string.
* Environment Variable values can come from the environment.
* Target-specific Variable values can be defined on a per-target
* Pattern-specific Target-specific variable values can be applied
to a group of targets that match a pattern.
* Suppressing Inheritance Suppress inheritance of variables.
* Special Variables Variables with special meaning or behavior.
Advanced Features for Reference to Variables
* Substitution Refs Referencing a variable with
substitutions on the value.
* Computed Names Computing the name of the variable to refer to.
Conditional Parts of Makefiles
* Conditional Example Example of a conditional
* Conditional Syntax The syntax of conditionals.
* Testing Flags Conditionals that test flags.
Functions for Transforming Text
* Syntax of Functions How to write a function call.
* Text Functions General-purpose text manipulation functions.
* File Name Functions Functions for manipulating file names.
* Conditional Functions Functions that implement conditions.
* Foreach Function Repeat some text with controlled variation.
* Call Function Expand a user-defined function.
* Value Function Return the un-expanded value of a variable.
* Eval Function Evaluate the arguments as makefile syntax.
* Origin Function Find where a variable got its value.
* Flavor Function Find out the flavor of a variable.
* Shell Function Substitute the output of a shell command.
* Make Control Functions Functions that control how make runs.
How to Run `make'
* Makefile Arguments How to specify which makefile to use.
* Goals How to use goal arguments to specify which
parts of the makefile to use.
* Instead of Execution How to use mode flags to specify what
kind of thing to do with the recipes
in the makefile other than simply
* Avoiding Compilation How to avoid recompiling certain files.
* Overriding How to override a variable to specify
an alternate compiler and other things.
* Testing How to proceed past some errors, to
* Options Summary Summary of Options
Using Implicit Rules
* Using Implicit How to use an existing implicit rule
to get the recipe for updating a file.
* Catalogue of Rules A list of built-in implicit rules.
* Implicit Variables How to change what predefined rules do.
* Chained Rules How to use a chain of implicit rules.
* Pattern Rules How to define new implicit rules.
* Last Resort How to define a recipe for rules which
cannot find any.
* Suffix Rules The old-fashioned style of implicit rule.
* Implicit Rule Search The precise algorithm for applying
Defining and Redefining Pattern Rules
* Pattern Intro An introduction to pattern rules.
* Pattern Examples Examples of pattern rules.
* Automatic Variables How to use automatic variables in the
recipe of implicit rules.
* Pattern Match How patterns match.
* Match-Anything Rules Precautions you should take prior to
defining rules that can match any
target file whatever.
* Canceling Rules How to override or cancel built-in rules.
Using `make' to Update Archive Files
* Archive Members Archive members as targets.
* Archive Update The implicit rule for archive member targets.
* Archive Pitfalls Dangers to watch out for when using archives.
* Archive Suffix Rules You can write a special kind of suffix rule
for updating archives.
Implicit Rule for Archive Member Targets
* Archive Symbols How to update archive symbol directories.
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