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 GNU `make'
 **********
 
 This file documents the GNU `make' utility, which determines
 automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled,
 and issues the commands to recompile them.
 
    This is Edition 0.70, last updated 1 April 2006, of `The GNU Make
 Manual', for GNU `make' version 3.81.
 
    Copyright (C) 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996,
 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Free Software
 Foundation, Inc.
 
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
      document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
      Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
      Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts
      being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
      below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
      "GNU Free Documentation License."
 
      (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have freedom to copy and
      modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by
      the Free Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development."
 

Menu

 
* Overview                    Overview of `make'.
* Introduction                An introduction to `make'.
* Makefiles                   Makefiles tell `make' what to do.
* Rules                       Rules describe when a file must be remade.
* Commands                    Commands say how to remake a file.
* Using Variables             You can use variables to avoid repetition.
* Conditionals                Use or ignore parts of the makefile based
                                   on the values of variables.
* Functions                   Many powerful ways to manipulate text.
* Invoking make Running.       How to invoke `make' on the command line.
* Implicit Rules              Use implicit rules to treat many files alike,
                                   based on their file names.
* Archives                    How `make' can update library archives.
* Features                    Features GNU `make' has over other `make's.
* Missing                     What GNU `make' lacks from other `make's.
* Makefile Conventions        Conventions for writing makefiles for
                                   GNU programs.
* Quick Reference             A quick reference for experienced users.
* Error Messages              A list of common errors generated by `make'.
* Complex Makefile            A real example of a straightforward,
                                   but nontrivial, makefile.
 
* GNU Free Documentation License  License for copying this manual
* Concept Index               Index of Concepts
* Name Index                  Index of Functions, Variables, & Directives
 
  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
 
 Overview of `make'
 
* Preparing                   Preparing and Running Make
* Reading                     On Reading this Text
* Bugs                        Problems and Bugs
 
 An Introduction to Makefiles
 
* Rule Introduction           What a rule looks like.
* Simple Makefile             A Simple Makefile
* How Make Works              How `make' Processes This Makefile
* Variables Simplify          Variables Make Makefiles Simpler
* make Deduces                Letting `make' Deduce the Commands
* Combine By Prerequisite     Another Style of Makefile
* Cleanup                     Rules for Cleaning the Directory
 
 Writing Makefiles
 
* Makefile Contents           What makefiles contain.
* Makefile Names              How to name your makefile.
* Include                     How one makefile can use another makefile.
* MAKEFILES Variable          The environment can specify extra makefiles.
* MAKEFILE_LIST Variable      Discover which makefiles have been read.
* Special Variables           Other special variables.
* Remaking Makefiles          How makefiles get remade.
* Overriding Makefiles        How to override part of one makefile
                                   with another makefile.
* Reading Makefiles           How makefiles are parsed.
* Secondary Expansion         How and when secondary expansion is performed.
 
 Writing Rules
 
* Rule Example                An example explained.
* Rule Syntax                 General syntax explained.
* Prerequisite Types          There are two types of prerequisites.
* Wildcards                   Using wildcard characters such as `*'.
* Directory Search            Searching other directories for source files.
* Phony Targets               Using a target that is not a real file's name.
* Force Targets               You can use a target without commands
                                   or prerequisites to mark other targets
                                   as phony.
* Empty Targets               When only the date matters and the
                                   files are empty.
* Special Targets             Targets with special built-in meanings.
* Multiple Targets            When to make use of several targets in a rule.
* Multiple Rules              How to use several rules with the same target.
* Static Pattern              Static pattern rules apply to multiple targets
                                   and can vary the prerequisites according to
                                   the target name.
* Double-Colon                How to use a special kind of rule to allow
                                   several independent rules for one target.
* Automatic Prerequisites     How to automatically generate rules giving
                                   prerequisites from source files themselves.
 
 Using Wildcard Characters in File Names
 
* Wildcard Examples           Several examples
* Wildcard Pitfall            Problems to avoid.
* Wildcard Function           How to cause wildcard expansion where
                                   it does not normally take place.
 
 Searching Directories for Prerequisites
 
* General Search              Specifying a search path that applies
                                   to every prerequisite.
* Selective Search            Specifying a search path
                                   for a specified class of names.
* Search Algorithm            When and how search paths are applied.
* Commands/Search             How to write shell commands that work together
                                   with search paths.
* Implicit/Search             How search paths affect implicit rules.
* Libraries/Search            Directory search for link libraries.
 
 Static Pattern Rules
 
* Static Usage                The syntax of static pattern rules.
* Static versus Implicit      When are they better than implicit rules?
 
 Writing the Commands in Rules
 
* Command Syntax              Command syntax features and pitfalls.
* Echoing                     How to control when commands are echoed.
* Execution                   How commands are executed.
* Parallel                    How commands can be executed in parallel.
* Errors                      What happens after a command execution error.
* Interrupts                  What happens when a command is interrupted.
* Recursion                   Invoking `make' from makefiles.
* Sequences                   Defining canned sequences of commands.
* Empty Commands              Defining useful, do-nothing commands.
 
 Command Syntax
 
* Splitting Lines             Breaking long command lines for readability.
* Variables in Commands       Using `make' variables in commands.
 
 Command Execution
 
* Choosing the Shell          How `make' chooses the shell used
                                   to run commands.
 
 Recursive Use of `make'
 
* MAKE Variable               The special effects of using `$(MAKE)'.
* Variables/Recursion         How to communicate variables to a sub-`make'.
* Options/Recursion           How to communicate options to a sub-`make'.
* -w Option                   How the `-w' or `--print-directory' option
                                   helps debug use of recursive `make' commands.
 
 How to Use Variables
 
* Reference                   How to use the value of a variable.
* Flavors                     Variables come in two flavors.
* Advanced                    Advanced features for referencing a variable.
* Values                      All the ways variables get their values.
* Setting                     How to set a variable in the makefile.
* Appending                   How to append more text to the old value
                                   of a variable.
* Override Directive          How to set a variable in the makefile even if
                                   the user has set it with a command argument.
* Defining                    An alternate way to set a variable
                                   to a verbatim string.
* Environment                 Variable values can come from the environment.
* Target-specific             Variable values can be defined on a per-target
                                   basis.
* Pattern-specific            Target-specific variable values can be applied
                                   to a group of targets that match a pattern.
 
 Advanced Features for Reference to Variables
 
* Substitution Refs           Referencing a variable with
                                   substitutions on the value.
* Computed Names              Computing the name of the variable to refer to.
 
 Conditional Parts of Makefiles
 
* Conditional Example         Example of a conditional
* Conditional Syntax          The syntax of conditionals.
* Testing Flags               Conditionals that test flags.
 
 Functions for Transforming Text
 
* Syntax of Functions         How to write a function call.
* Text Functions              General-purpose text manipulation functions.
* File Name Functions         Functions for manipulating file names.
* Conditional Functions       Functions that implement conditions.
* Foreach Function            Repeat some text with controlled variation.
* Call Function               Expand a user-defined function.
* Value Function              Return the un-expanded value of a variable.
* Eval Function               Evaluate the arguments as makefile syntax.
* Origin Function             Find where a variable got its value.
* Flavor Function             Find out the flavor of a variable.
* Shell Function              Substitute the output of a shell command.
* Make Control Functions      Functions that control how make runs.
 
 How to Run `make'
 
* Makefile Arguments          How to specify which makefile to use.
* Goals                       How to use goal arguments to specify which
                                   parts of the makefile to use.
* Instead of Execution        How to use mode flags to specify what
                                   kind of thing to do with the commands
                                   in the makefile other than simply
                                   execute them.
* Avoiding Compilation        How to avoid recompiling certain files.
* Overriding                  How to override a variable to specify
                                   an alternate compiler and other things.
* Testing                     How to proceed past some errors, to
                                   test compilation.
* Options Summary             Summary of Options
 
 Using Implicit Rules
 
* Using Implicit              How to use an existing implicit rule
                                   to get the commands for updating a file.
* Catalogue of Rules          A list of built-in implicit rules.
* Implicit Variables          How to change what predefined rules do.
* Chained Rules               How to use a chain of implicit rules.
* Pattern Rules               How to define new implicit rules.
* Last Resort                 How to define commands for rules which
                                   cannot find any.
* Suffix Rules                The old-fashioned style of implicit rule.
* Implicit Rule Search        The precise algorithm for applying
                                   implicit rules.
 
 Defining and Redefining Pattern Rules
 
* Pattern Intro               An introduction to pattern rules.
* Pattern Examples            Examples of pattern rules.
* Automatic Variables         How to use automatic variables in the
                                   commands of implicit rules.
* Pattern Match               How patterns match.
* Match-Anything Rules        Precautions you should take prior to
                                   defining rules that can match any
                                   target file whatever.
* Canceling Rules             How to override or cancel built-in rules.
 
 Using `make' to Update Archive Files
 
* Archive Members             Archive members as targets.
* Archive Update              The implicit rule for archive member targets.
* Archive Pitfalls            Dangers to watch out for when using archives.
* Archive Suffix Rules        You can write a special kind of suffix rule
                                   for updating archives.
 
 Implicit Rule for Archive Member Targets
 
* Archive Symbols             How to update archive symbol directories.
 
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