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 GNU ‘gettext’ utilities
 ***********************
 
    This manual documents the GNU gettext tools and the GNU libintl
 library, version 0.19.8.1.
 

Menu

 
* Introduction                Introduction
* Users                       The User’s View
* PO Files                    The Format of PO Files
* Sources                     Preparing Program Sources
* Template                    Making the PO Template File
* Creating                    Creating a New PO File
* Updating                    Updating Existing PO Files
* Editing                     Editing PO Files
* Manipulating                Manipulating PO Files
* Binaries                    Producing Binary MO Files
* Programmers                 The Programmer’s View
* Translators                 The Translator’s View
* Maintainers                 The Maintainer’s View
* Installers                  The Installer’s and Distributor’s View
* Programming Languages       Other Programming Languages
* Conclusion                  Concluding Remarks
 
* Language Codes              ISO 639 language codes
* Country Codes               ISO 3166 country codes
* Licenses                    Licenses
 
* Program Index               Index of Programs
* Option Index                Index of Command-Line Options
* Variable Index              Index of Environment Variables
* PO Mode Index               Index of Emacs PO Mode Commands
* Autoconf Macro Index        Index of Autoconf Macros
* Index                       General Index
 
  — The Detailed Node Listing —
 
 Introduction
 
* Why                         The Purpose of GNU ‘gettext’
* Concepts                    I18n, L10n, and Such
* Aspects                     Aspects in Native Language Support
* Files                       Files Conveying Translations
* Overview                    Overview of GNU ‘gettext’
 
 The User’s View
 
* System Installation         Questions During Operating System Installation
* Setting the GUI Locale      How to Specify the Locale Used by GUI Programs
* Setting the POSIX Locale    How to Specify the Locale According to POSIX
* Installing Localizations    How to Install Additional Translations
 
 Setting the Locale through Environment Variables
 
* Locale Names                How a Locale Specification Looks Like
* Locale Environment Variables  Which Environment Variable Specfies What
* The LANGUAGE variable       How to Specify a Priority List of Languages
 
 Preparing Program Sources
 
* Importing                   Importing the ‘gettext’ declaration
* Triggering                  Triggering ‘gettext’ Operations
* Preparing Strings           Preparing Translatable Strings
* Mark Keywords               How Marks Appear in Sources
* Marking                     Marking Translatable Strings
* c-format Flag               Telling something about the following string
* Special cases               Special Cases of Translatable Strings
* Bug Report Address          Letting Users Report Translation Bugs
* Names                       Marking Proper Names for Translation
* Libraries                   Preparing Library Sources
 
 Making the PO Template File
 
* xgettext Invocation         Invoking the ‘xgettext’ Program
 
 Creating a New PO File
 
* msginit Invocation          Invoking the ‘msginit’ Program
* Header Entry                Filling in the Header Entry
 
 Updating Existing PO Files
 
* msgmerge Invocation         Invoking the ‘msgmerge’ Program
 
 Editing PO Files
 
* KBabel                      KDE’s PO File Editor
* Gtranslator                 GNOME’s PO File Editor
* PO Mode                     Emacs’s PO File Editor
* Compendium                  Using Translation Compendia
 
 Emacs’s PO File Editor
 
* Installation                Completing GNU ‘gettext’ Installation
* Main PO Commands            Main Commands
* Entry Positioning           Entry Positioning
* Normalizing                 Normalizing Strings in Entries
* Translated Entries          Translated Entries
* Fuzzy Entries               Fuzzy Entries
* Untranslated Entries        Untranslated Entries
* Obsolete Entries            Obsolete Entries
* Modifying Translations      Modifying Translations
* Modifying Comments          Modifying Comments
* Subedit                     Mode for Editing Translations
* C Sources Context           C Sources Context
* Auxiliary                   Consulting Auxiliary PO Files
 
 Using Translation Compendia
 
* Creating Compendia          Merging translations for later use
* Using Compendia             Using older translations if they fit
 
 Manipulating PO Files
 
* msgcat Invocation           Invoking the ‘msgcat’ Program
* msgconv Invocation          Invoking the ‘msgconv’ Program
* msggrep Invocation          Invoking the ‘msggrep’ Program
* msgfilter Invocation        Invoking the ‘msgfilter’ Program
* msguniq Invocation          Invoking the ‘msguniq’ Program
* msgcomm Invocation          Invoking the ‘msgcomm’ Program
* msgcmp Invocation           Invoking the ‘msgcmp’ Program
* msgattrib Invocation        Invoking the ‘msgattrib’ Program
* msgen Invocation            Invoking the ‘msgen’ Program
* msgexec Invocation          Invoking the ‘msgexec’ Program
* Colorizing                  Highlighting parts of PO files
* libgettextpo                Writing your own programs that process PO files
 
 Highlighting parts of PO files
 
* The --color option          Triggering colorized output
* The TERM variable           The environment variable ‘TERM’
* The --style option          The ‘--style’ option
* Style rules                 Style rules for PO files
* Customizing less            Customizing ‘less’ for viewing PO files
 
 Producing Binary MO Files
 
* msgfmt Invocation           Invoking the ‘msgfmt’ Program
* msgunfmt Invocation         Invoking the ‘msgunfmt’ Program
* MO Files                    The Format of GNU MO Files
 
 The Programmer’s View
 
* catgets                     About ‘catgets’
* gettext                     About ‘gettext’
* Comparison                  Comparing the two interfaces
* Using libintl.a             Using libintl.a in own programs
* gettext grok                Being a ‘gettext’ grok
* Temp Programmers            Temporary Notes for the Programmers Chapter
 
 About ‘catgets’
 
* Interface to catgets        The interface
* Problems with catgets       Problems with the ‘catgets’ interface?!
 
 About ‘gettext’
 
* Interface to gettext        The interface
* Ambiguities                 Solving ambiguities
* Locating Catalogs           Locating message catalog files
* Charset conversion          How to request conversion to Unicode
* Contexts                    Solving ambiguities in GUI programs
* Plural forms                Additional functions for handling plurals
* Optimized gettext           Optimization of the *gettext functions
 
 Temporary Notes for the Programmers Chapter
 
* Temp Implementations        Temporary - Two Possible Implementations
* Temp catgets                Temporary - About ‘catgets’
* Temp WSI                    Temporary - Why a single implementation
* Temp Notes                  Temporary - Notes
 
 The Translator’s View
 
* Trans Intro 0               Introduction 0
* Trans Intro 1               Introduction 1
* Discussions                 Discussions
* Organization                Organization
* Information Flow            Information Flow
* Translating plural forms    How to fill in ‘msgstr[0]’, ‘msgstr[1]’
* Prioritizing messages       How to find which messages to translate first
 
 Organization
 
* Central Coordination        Central Coordination
* National Teams              National Teams
* Mailing Lists               Mailing Lists
 
 National Teams
 
* Sub-Cultures                Sub-Cultures
* Organizational Ideas        Organizational Ideas
 
 The Maintainer’s View
 
* Flat and Non-Flat           Flat or Non-Flat Directory Structures
* Prerequisites               Prerequisite Works
* gettextize Invocation       Invoking the ‘gettextize’ Program
* Adjusting Files             Files You Must Create or Alter
* autoconf macros             Autoconf macros for use in ‘configure.ac’
* Version Control Issues      
* Release Management          Creating a Distribution Tarball
 
 Files You Must Create or Alter
 
* po/POTFILES.in              ‘POTFILES.in’ in ‘po/’
* po/LINGUAS                  ‘LINGUAS’ in ‘po/’
* po/Makevars                 ‘Makevars’ in ‘po/’
* po/Rules-*                  Extending ‘Makefile’ in ‘po/’
* configure.ac                ‘configure.ac’ at top level
* config.guess                ‘config.guess’, ‘config.sub’ at top level
* mkinstalldirs               ‘mkinstalldirs’ at top level
* aclocal                     ‘aclocal.m4’ at top level
* acconfig                    ‘acconfig.h’ at top level
* config.h.in                 ‘config.h.in’ at top level
* Makefile                    ‘Makefile.in’ at top level
* src/Makefile                ‘Makefile.in’ in ‘src/’
* lib/gettext.h               ‘gettext.h’ in ‘lib/’
 
 Autoconf macros for use in ‘configure.ac’
 
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT              AM_GNU_GETTEXT in ‘gettext.m4’
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION      AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION in ‘gettext.m4’
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED         AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED in ‘gettext.m4’
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR  AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR in ‘intldir.m4’
* AM_PO_SUBDIRS               AM_PO_SUBDIRS in ‘po.m4’
* AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION          AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION in ‘po.m4’
* AM_ICONV                    AM_ICONV in ‘iconv.m4’
 
 Integrating with Version Control Systems
 
* Distributed Development     Avoiding version mismatch in distributed development
* Files under Version Control  Files to put under version control
* Translations under Version Control  Put PO Files under Version Control
* autopoint Invocation        Invoking the ‘autopoint’ Program
 
 Other Programming Languages
 
* Language Implementors       The Language Implementor’s View
* Programmers for other Languages  The Programmer’s View
* Translators for other Languages  The Translator’s View
* Maintainers for other Languages  The Maintainer’s View
* List of Programming Languages  Individual Programming Languages
* List of Data Formats        Internationalizable Data
 
 The Translator’s View
 
* c-format                    C Format Strings
* objc-format                 Objective C Format Strings
* sh-format                   Shell Format Strings
* python-format               Python Format Strings
* lisp-format                 Lisp Format Strings
* elisp-format                Emacs Lisp Format Strings
* librep-format               librep Format Strings
* scheme-format               Scheme Format Strings
* smalltalk-format            Smalltalk Format Strings
* java-format                 Java Format Strings
* csharp-format               C# Format Strings
* awk-format                  awk Format Strings
* object-pascal-format        Object Pascal Format Strings
* ycp-format                  YCP Format Strings
* tcl-format                  Tcl Format Strings
* perl-format                 Perl Format Strings
* php-format                  PHP Format Strings
* gcc-internal-format         GCC internal Format Strings
* gfc-internal-format         GFC internal Format Strings
* qt-format                   Qt Format Strings
* qt-plural-format            Qt Plural Format Strings
* kde-format                  KDE Format Strings
* boost-format                Boost Format Strings
* lua-format                  Lua Format Strings
* javascript-format           JavaScript Format Strings
 
 Individual Programming Languages
 
* C                           C, C++, Objective C
* sh                          sh - Shell Script
* bash                        bash - Bourne-Again Shell Script
* Python                      Python
* Common Lisp                 GNU clisp - Common Lisp
* clisp C                     GNU clisp C sources
* Emacs Lisp                  Emacs Lisp
* librep                      librep
* Scheme                      GNU guile - Scheme
* Smalltalk                   GNU Smalltalk
* Java                        Java
* C#                          C#
* gawk                        GNU awk
* Pascal                      Pascal - Free Pascal Compiler
* wxWidgets                   wxWidgets library
* YCP                         YCP - YaST2 scripting language
* Tcl                         Tcl - Tk’s scripting language
* Perl                        Perl
* PHP                         PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
* Pike                        Pike
* GCC-source                  GNU Compiler Collection sources
* Lua                         Lua
* JavaScript                  JavaScript
* Vala                        Vala
 
 sh - Shell Script
 
* Preparing Shell Scripts     Preparing Shell Scripts for Internationalization
* gettext.sh                  Contents of ‘gettext.sh’
* gettext Invocation          Invoking the ‘gettext’ program
* ngettext Invocation         Invoking the ‘ngettext’ program
* envsubst Invocation         Invoking the ‘envsubst’ program
* eval_gettext Invocation     Invoking the ‘eval_gettext’ function
* eval_ngettext Invocation    Invoking the ‘eval_ngettext’ function
 
 Perl
 
* General Problems            General Problems Parsing Perl Code
* Default Keywords            Which Keywords Will xgettext Look For?
* Special Keywords            How to Extract Hash Keys
* Quote-like Expressions      What are Strings And Quote-like Expressions?
* Interpolation I             Invalid String Interpolation
* Interpolation II            Valid String Interpolation
* Parentheses                 When To Use Parentheses
* Long Lines                  How To Grok with Long Lines
* Perl Pitfalls               Bugs, Pitfalls, and Things That Do Not Work
 
 Internationalizable Data
 
* POT                         POT - Portable Object Template
* RST                         Resource String Table
* Glade                       Glade - GNOME user interface description
* GSettings                   GSettings - GNOME user configuration schema
* AppData                     AppData - freedesktop.org application description
* Preparing ITS Rules         Preparing Rules for XML Internationalization
 
 Concluding Remarks
 
* History                     History of GNU ‘gettext’
* References                  Related Readings
 
 Language Codes
 
* Usual Language Codes        Two-letter ISO 639 language codes
* Rare Language Codes         Three-letter ISO 639 language codes
 
 Licenses
 
* GNU GPL                     GNU General Public License
* GNU LGPL                    GNU Lesser General Public License
* GNU FDL                     GNU Free Documentation License
 
 
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