1.3 Aspects in Native Language Support
For a totally multi-lingual distribution, there are many things to
translate beyond output messages.
* As of today, GNU `gettext' offers a complete toolset for
translating messages output by C programs. Perl scripts and shell
scripts will also need to be translated. Even if there are today
some hooks by which this can be done, these hooks are not
integrated as well as they should be.
* Some programs, like `autoconf' or `bison', are able to produce
other programs (or scripts). Even if the generating programs
themselves are internationalized, the generated programs they
produce may need internationalization on their own, and this
indirect internationalization could be automated right from the
generating program. In fact, quite usually, generating and
generated programs could be internationalized independently, as
the effort needed is fairly orthogonal.
* A few programs include textual tables which might need translation
themselves, independently of the strings contained in the program
itself. For example, RFC 1345 gives an English description for
each character which the `recode' program is able to reconstruct
at execution. Since these descriptions are extracted from the RFC
by mechanical means, translating them properly would require a
prior translation of the RFC itself.
* Almost all programs accept options, which are often worded out so
to be descriptive for the English readers; one might want to
consider offering translated versions for program options as well.
* Many programs read, interpret, compile, or are somewhat driven by
input files which are texts containing keywords, identifiers, or
replies which are inherently translatable. For example, one may
want `gcc' to allow diacriticized characters in identifiers or use
translated keywords; `rm -i' might accept something else than `y'
or `n' for replies, etc. Even if the program will eventually make
most of its output in the foreign languages, one has to decide
whether the input syntax, option values, etc., are to be localized
* The manual accompanying a package, as well as all documentation
files in the distribution, could surely be translated, too.
Translating a manual, with the intent of later keeping up with
updates, is a major undertaking in itself, generally.
As we already stressed, translation is only one aspect of locales.
Other internationalization aspects are system services and are handled
in GNU `libc'. There are many attributes that are needed to define a
country's cultural conventions. These attributes include beside the
country's native language, the formatting of the date and time, the
representation of numbers, the symbols for currency, etc. These local
"rules" are termed the country's locale. The locale represents the
knowledge needed to support the country's native attributes.
There are a few major areas which may vary between countries and
hence, define what a locale must describe. The following list helps
putting multi-lingual messages into the proper context of other tasks
related to locales. See the GNU `libc' manual for details.
_Characters and Codesets_
The codeset most commonly used through out the USA and most English
speaking parts of the world is the ASCII codeset. However, there
are many characters needed by various locales that are not found
within this codeset. The 8-bit ISO 8859-1 code set has most of
the special characters needed to handle the major European
languages. However, in many cases, choosing ISO 8859-1 is
nevertheless not adequate: it doesn't even handle the major
European currency. Hence each locale will need to specify which
codeset they need to use and will need to have the appropriate
character handling routines to cope with the codeset.
The symbols used vary from country to country as does the position
used by the symbol. Software needs to be able to transparently
display currency figures in the native mode for each locale.
The format of date varies between locales. For example, Christmas
day in 1994 is written as 12/25/94 in the USA and as 25/12/94 in
Australia. Other countries might use ISO 8601 dates, etc.
Time of the day may be noted as HH:MM, HH.MM, or otherwise. Some
locales require time to be specified in 24-hour mode rather than
as AM or PM. Further, the nature and yearly extent of the
Daylight Saving correction vary widely between countries.
Numbers can be represented differently in different locales. For
example, the following numbers are all written correctly for their
Some programs could go further and use different unit systems, like
English units or Metric units, or even take into account variants
about how numbers are spelled in full.
The most obvious area is the language support within a locale.
This is where GNU `gettext' provides the means for developers and
users to easily change the language that the software uses to
communicate to the user.
These areas of cultural conventions are called _locale categories_.
It is an unfortunate term; _locale aspects_ or _locale feature
categories_ would be a better term, because each "locale category"
describes an area or task that requires localization. The concrete data
that describes the cultural conventions for such an area and for a
particular culture is also called a _locale category_. In this sense,
a locale is composed of several locale categories: the locale category
describing the codeset, the locale category describing the formatting
of numbers, the locale category containing the translated messages, and
Components of locale outside of message handling are standardized in
the ISO C standard and the POSIX:2001 standard (also known as the SUSV3
specification). GNU `libc' fully implements this, and most other
modern systems provide a more or less reasonable support for at least
some of the missing components.
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