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 The GNU C Preprocessor Internals
 1 Cpplib--the GNU C Preprocessor
 The GNU C preprocessor is implemented as a library, "cpplib", so it can
 be easily shared between a stand-alone preprocessor, and a preprocessor
 integrated with the C, C++ and Objective-C front ends.  It is also
 available for use by other programs, though this is not recommended as
 its exposed interface has not yet reached a point of reasonable
    The library has been written to be re-entrant, so that it can be used
 to preprocess many files simultaneously if necessary.  It has also been
 written with the preprocessing token as the fundamental unit; the
 preprocessor in previous versions of GCC would operate on text strings
 as the fundamental unit.
    This brief manual documents the internals of cpplib, and explains
 some of the tricky issues.  It is intended that, along with the
 comments in the source code, a reasonably competent C programmer should
 be able to figure out what the code is doing, and why things have been
 implemented the way they have.


* Conventions         Conventions used in the code.
* Lexer               The combined C, C++ and Objective-C Lexer.
* Hash Nodes          All identifiers are entered into a hash table.
* Macro Expansion     Macro expansion algorithm.
* Token Spacing       Spacing and paste avoidance issues.
* Line Numbering      Tracking location within files.
* Guard Macros        Optimizing header files with guard macros.
* Files               File handling.
* Concept Index       Index.
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