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 GNU Coreutils
 This manual documents version 8.4 of the GNU core utilities, including
 the standard programs for text and file manipulation.
    Copyright (C) 1994-1996, 2000-2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
      document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
      Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
      Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
      and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included
      in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".


* Introduction                 Caveats, overview, and authors
* Common options               Common options
* Output of entire files       cat tac nl od base64
* Formatting file contents     fmt pr fold
* Output of parts of files     head tail split csplit
* Summarizing files            wc sum cksum md5sum sha1sum sha2
* Operating on sorted files    sort shuf uniq comm ptx tsort
* Operating on fields          cut paste join
* Operating on characters      tr expand unexpand
* Directory listing            ls dir vdir dircolors
* Basic operations             cp dd install mv rm shred
* Special file types         mkdir rmdir unlink mkfifo mknod ln link readlink
* Changing file attributes     chgrp chmod chown touch
* Disk usage                   df du stat sync truncate
* Printing text                echo printf yes
* Conditions                   false true test expr
* Redirection                  tee
* File name manipulation       dirname basename pathchk mktemp
* Working context              pwd stty printenv tty
* User information             id logname whoami groups users who
* System context               date arch uname hostname hostid uptime
* SELinux context              chcon runcon
* Modified command invocation  chroot env nice nohup stdbuf su timeout
* Process control              kill
* Delaying                     sleep
* Numeric operations           factor seq
* File permissions             Access modes
* Date input formats           Specifying date strings
* Opening the software toolbox The software tools philosophy
* GNU Free Documentation License Copying and sharing this manual
* Concept index                General index
  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
 Common Options
* Exit status                  Indicating program success or failure
* Backup options               Backup options
* Block size                   Block size
* Signal specifications        Specifying signals
* Disambiguating names and IDs chgrp and chown owner and group syntax
* Random sources               Sources of random data
* Target directory             Target directory
* Trailing slashes             Trailing slashes
* Traversing symlinks          Traversing symlinks to directories
* Treating / specially         Treating / specially
* Standards conformance        Standards conformance
 Output of entire files
* cat invocation               Concatenate and write files
* tac invocation               Concatenate and write files in reverse
* nl invocation                Number lines and write files
* od invocation                Write files in octal or other formats
* base64 invocation            Transform data into printable data
 Formatting file contents
* fmt invocation               Reformat paragraph text
* pr invocation                Paginate or columnate files for printing
* fold invocation              Wrap input lines to fit in specified width
 Output of parts of files
* head invocation              Output the first part of files
* tail invocation              Output the last part of files
* split invocation             Split a file into fixed-size pieces
* csplit invocation            Split a file into context-determined pieces
 Summarizing files
* wc invocation                Print newline, word, and byte counts
* sum invocation               Print checksum and block counts
* cksum invocation             Print CRC checksum and byte counts
* md5sum invocation            Print or check MD5 digests
* sha1sum invocation           Print or check SHA-1 digests
* sha2 utilities               Print or check SHA-2 digests
 Operating on sorted files
* sort invocation              Sort text files
* shuf invocation              Shuffle text files
* uniq invocation              Uniquify files
* comm invocation              Compare two sorted files line by line
* ptx invocation               Produce a permuted index of file contents
* tsort invocation             Topological sort
 `ptx': Produce permuted indexes
* General options in ptx       Options which affect general program behavior
* Charset selection in ptx     Underlying character set considerations
* Input processing in ptx      Input fields, contexts, and keyword selection
* Output formatting in ptx     Types of output format, and sizing the fields
* Compatibility in ptx         The GNU extensions to `ptx'
 Operating on fields
* cut invocation               Print selected parts of lines
* paste invocation             Merge lines of files
* join invocation              Join lines on a common field
 Operating on characters
* tr invocation                Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
* expand invocation            Convert tabs to spaces
* unexpand invocation          Convert spaces to tabs
 `tr': Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
* Character sets               Specifying sets of characters
* Translating                  Changing one set of characters to another
* Squeezing                    Squeezing repeats and deleting
 Directory listing
* ls invocation                List directory contents
* dir invocation               Briefly list directory contents
* vdir invocation              Verbosely list directory contents
* dircolors invocation         Color setup for `ls'
 `ls':  List directory contents
* Which files are listed       Which files are listed
* What information is listed   What information is listed
* Sorting the output           Sorting the output
* Details about version sort   More details about version sort
* General output formatting    General output formatting
* Formatting the file names    Formatting the file names
 Basic operations
* cp invocation                Copy files and directories
* dd invocation                Convert and copy a file
* install invocation           Copy files and set attributes
* mv invocation                Move (rename) files
* rm invocation                Remove files or directories
* shred invocation             Remove files more securely
 Special file types
* link invocation              Make a hard link via the link syscall
* ln invocation                Make links between files
* mkdir invocation             Make directories
* mkfifo invocation            Make FIFOs (named pipes)
* mknod invocation             Make block or character special files
* readlink invocation          Print value of a symlink or canonical file name
* rmdir invocation             Remove empty directories
* unlink invocation            Remove files via unlink syscall
 Changing file attributes
* chown invocation             Change file owner and group
* chgrp invocation             Change group ownership
* chmod invocation             Change access permissions
* touch invocation             Change file timestamps
 Disk usage
* df invocation                Report file system disk space usage
* du invocation                Estimate file space usage
* stat invocation              Report file or file system status
* sync invocation              Synchronize data on disk with memory
* truncate invocation          Shrink or extend the size of a file
 Printing text
* echo invocation              Print a line of text
* printf invocation            Format and print data
* yes invocation               Print a string until interrupted
* false invocation             Do nothing, unsuccessfully
* true invocation              Do nothing, successfully
* test invocation              Check file types and compare values
* expr invocation              Evaluate expressions
 `test': Check file types and compare values
* File type tests              File type tests
* Access permission tests      Access permission tests
* File characteristic tests    File characteristic tests
* String tests                 String tests
* Numeric tests                Numeric tests
 `expr': Evaluate expression
* String expressions           + : match substr index length
* Numeric expressions          + - * / %
* Relations for expr           | & < <= = == != >= >
* Examples of expr             Examples of using `expr'
* tee invocation               Redirect output to multiple files or processes
 File name manipulation
* basename invocation          Strip directory and suffix from a file name
* dirname invocation           Strip non-directory suffix from a file name
* pathchk invocation           Check file name validity and portability
* mktemp invocation            Create temporary file or directory
 Working context
* pwd invocation               Print working directory
* stty invocation              Print or change terminal characteristics
* printenv invocation          Print all or some environment variables
* tty invocation               Print file name of terminal on standard input
 `stty': Print or change terminal characteristics
* Control                      Control settings
* Input                        Input settings
* Output                       Output settings
* Local                        Local settings
* Combination                  Combination settings
* Characters                   Special characters
* Special                      Special settings
 User information
* id invocation                Print user identity
* logname invocation           Print current login name
* whoami invocation            Print effective user ID
* groups invocation            Print group names a user is in
* users invocation             Print login names of users currently logged in
* who invocation               Print who is currently logged in
 System context
* arch invocation              Print machine hardware name
* date invocation              Print or set system date and time
* nproc invocation             Print the number of processors
* uname invocation             Print system information
* hostname invocation          Print or set system name
* hostid invocation            Print numeric host identifier
* uptime invocation            Print system uptime and load
 `date': Print or set system date and time
* Time conversion specifiers   %[HIklMNpPrRsSTXzZ]
* Date conversion specifiers   %[aAbBcCdDeFgGhjmuUVwWxyY]
* Literal conversion specifiers %[%nt]
* Padding and other flags      Pad with zeros, spaces, etc.
* Setting the time             Changing the system clock
* Options for date             Instead of the current time
* Date input formats           Specifying date strings
* Examples of date             Examples
 SELinux context
* chcon invocation             Change SELinux context of file
* runcon invocation            Run a command in specified SELinux context
 Modified command invocation
* chroot invocation            Run a command with a different root directory
* env invocation               Run a command in a modified environment
* nice invocation              Run a command with modified niceness
* nohup invocation             Run a command immune to hangups
* stdbuf invocation            Run a command with modified I/O buffering
* su invocation                Run a command with substitute user and group ID
* timeout invocation           Run a command with a time limit
 Process control
* kill invocation              Sending a signal to processes.
* sleep invocation             Delay for a specified time
 Numeric operations
* factor invocation            Print prime factors
* seq invocation               Print numeric sequences
 File permissions
* Mode Structure               Structure of file mode bits
* Symbolic Modes               Mnemonic representation of file mode bits
* Numeric Modes                File mode bits as octal numbers
* Directory Setuid and Setgid  Set-user-ID and set-group-ID on directories
 Date input formats
* General date syntax          Common rules
* Calendar date items          19 Dec 1994
* Time of day items            9:20pm
* Time zone items              EST, PDT, GMT
* Day of week items            Monday and others
* Relative items in date strings next tuesday, 2 years ago
* Pure numbers in date strings 19931219, 1440
* Seconds since the Epoch      @1078100502
* Specifying time zone rules   TZ="America/New_York", TZ="UTC0"
* Authors of get_date          Bellovin, Eggert, Salz, Berets, et al
 Opening the software toolbox
* Toolbox introduction         Toolbox introduction
* I/O redirection              I/O redirection
* The who command              The `who' command
* The cut command              The `cut' command
* The sort command             The `sort' command
* The uniq command             The `uniq' command
* Putting the tools together   Putting the tools together
 Copying This Manual
* GNU Free Documentation License     Copying and sharing this manual
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